Benediktinisches antiphonale online dating
His will is supreme in all things; yet, as the Rule says, nothing is to be taught, commanded, or ordered beyond the precepts of the Lord.All the officials who are to assist him in the government of the house, are appointed by him and have their authority from him. The Abbot, by virtue of his office, administers the temporal possessions of the community, exercises a general supervision for the maintenance of monastic discipline, provides for the keeping of the Rule, punishes and, if need be, excommunicates the refractory, presides in choir during the recitation of the Office, and at Divine Service, and gives the blessings.A title given to the superior of a community of twelve or more monks. Every group of hermits and every coenobium naturally had its superior. In the East he was usually styled the elder, the senior, or also father of the monastery.The name is derived from abba , the Syriac form of the Hebrew ab , and means "father". In Asia Minor and among the Greeks generally he was called archimandrite ( archos , a chief, and mandra , a fold, monastery ) or hegumenos.Benedict were united under the presidency of an "Abbot Primate" ( Leo XIII , Summum semper , 12 July, 1893); but the unification, fraternal in its nature, brought no modification to the abbatial dignity, and the various congregations preserved their autonomy intact.The powers of the Abbot Primate are specified, and his position defined, in a Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars dated 16 September, 1893. By the middle of the fourth century monachism had also made its appearance in Europe, and here, at the beginning of the sixth, St. Both systems spread rapidly and were soon firmly established in Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Asia Minor.
Through the Rule of the great Patriarch of Western Monachism the application of the title abbas was definitely fixed, and its use made general in the West. Benedict's conception of a monastic community was distinctly that of a spiritual family.From the East the word passed over to the West, and here it was soon received into general use to designate the superior of an abbey or a monastery. Cassian, who at the beginning of the fifth century had transplanted Egyptian monachism to Gaul, was addressed as Abbas , Pater , and Dominus ; he himself termed the superior of the monastery Praepositus . Benedict of Nursia, gave it the definite form and constitution which ultimately assured its triumph in the West.Within the limits of his territory such an Abbot has, with few exceptions, the rights and privileges of a bishop, and assumes all a bishop's obligations.
Abbots of the second grade, however, whose authority (though quasi-episcopal) is intra-territorial, cannot be considered ordinaries, nor can they lay any claim to the rights and privileges of bishops, excepting those, of course, which have been especially granted them by the Holy See.
In Syria, where it had its origin, and in Egypt, it was first employed as a title of honour and respect, and was given to any monk of venerable age or of eminent sanctity. Originally there seems to have been no appreciable difference in the signification of these two words, but after the period of Justinian the title archimandrite was jealously reserved for the superiors of the older or of the more important monasteries.